Tajikistan is an attractive tourist area
Tourism in Tajikistan is one of the developing sectors of the country's economy, which has been developing rapidly in recent years. In the 1990s, due to the civil war in the country, tourists from abroad restrained themselves from visiting this country for security reasons. After the end of the civil war in 1997, tourism in the country began to gradually develop and from the mid-2000s it reached a qualitatively new level, thanks to improved infrastructure and quality of service.
The mountainous nature of the terrain and the location of Tajikistan on the verge between the temperate and subtropical zones creates an extreme variety of local climatic conditions. The exceptional wealth of the plant and animal life of the republic, which covers both the hot lowlands and the cold peaks of the mountains, depends on this variety of conditions. With the extraordinary richness of the flora of Tajikistan, about five thousand species fall to the share of flowering plants, which leads to an exceptional variety of vegetation. On the vertical profile of Tajikistan from 300-400 m and up to 6000-7500 m above sea level, altitudinal clarity is clearly manifested, complicated by regional heterogeneity due to the intersection of the relief. Deserts prevailing on the neighboring plains of Turan, passing in the foothills to semi-savannas that are similar in appearance to the steppes, are replaced by rare-leaved deciduous deciduous forests here, giving way to either broad-leaved moisture-loving forests of maple and walnut, or evergreen juniper trees, even later replaced by steppes then prickly grass and alpine pads. In the Pamirs, at an altitude of 3600-4800 m, due to its exceptional dryness, subalpine, alpine deserts are widely developed. The following most characteristic types of vegetation are distinguished within Tajikistan. Broad-leaved forests. thermophilic broad-leaved tree and shrub species (walnut, Turkestan maple, plane tree, exochord, dogrose, irgai and others), characteristic of the middle mountains of Central Tajikistan.
The invaluable natural gift of Tajikistan is full-flowing rivers. Most of them belong to the Aral Sea basin, only some Pamir rivers carry their waters to Karakul Lake or to the Tarima basin (China). Rivers differ one from another by their power sources, mode and economic importance. The most important among them Pyanj, Vakhsh, Amu Darya, Syr Darya, Zeravshan, Kafirnigan originating high in the mountains, they feed on the waters of glaciers.365One of the largest rivers, the Panj, flows at a distance of 921 km along the southern border of the republic. Almost 525 km stretched across Tajikistan, its main waterway Vakhsh. At the confluence of the Panj and Vakhsh, the most watery river of the republic is formed the Amu Darya. But Tajikistan owns a small segment of its course only 85 km.
Another major Central Asian river, the Syr Darya, crosses northern Tajikistan over a 105 km stretch. In the center of the republic flows a swift and stormy Zeravshan. In the south it carries its waters to the Amu Darya, Kafirnigan. Narrow valleys cut through the mountains of the river, often flowing in canyons with sheer walls. Canyons are known in some parts of the valleys along the Panj, Muks, Bartang, Yazgulem, Shahdar, in the middle reaches of the Vakhsh, on Zeravshan, Yagnob, Obihingou. The steep fall of the riverbed, reaching several meters per kilometer, is also characteristic of mountain sections of rivers, and in some places it amounts to tens or even hundreds of meters per kilometer. Therefore, the rivers are characterized by rapid currents. Sometimes they are overthrown by noisy boiling currents. But as soon as rivers enter the foothill plains, their character changes. They are divided into ducts and arms, made wider, their flow becomes more calm. Such are the rivers Syr Darya, Vakhsh, Kafirnigan, Pyanj. They are very high water, but their runoff is extremely uneven across the seasons.
Floods in Tajikistan are rapid and rapid. At rivers of glacial nutrition, there are usually two of them: spring when snow melts and rain and summer, caused by melted glacial waters and waters of eternal snows. Rivers that feed on seasonal snow and rain (foothill rivers) have one flood in the spring. In the cold season, the water content of all rivers is reduced several times, and they are very shallow. The regime of the rivers carrying the most water in spring and summer favors artificial irrigation. But significant fluctuations in water availability during the year make it difficult to use their energy. Therefore, to regulate the flow, it is necessary to build reservoirs.
The reserves of white energy in Tajik rivers are very large. Vakhsh and Panj possess tremendous energy. For hydropower, small rivers flowing from lakes are also of interest. Among them stand out Iskanderdarya, Bartang and Gunt. In the past, their valleys were blocked by powerful mountain collapses. Significant lakes arose above these natural dams.
At relatively low costs, powerful hydropower plants can be built on rivers.
There are relatively few lakes in the republic. They are located mainly in the Pamirs and in the mountains of Central Tajikistan.
There are few of them on the plains, and they are found only in floodplains of rivers. By the origin of the hollows, the lakes are divided into tectonic, glacial, dammed, karst, and floodplain. In the mountains, most of the lake basins arose as a result of tectonic processes, the activity of glaciers or landslides.
The largest glacial-tectonic lake Karakul, located in the Eastern Pamirs at an altitude of about 4000 m, is salty and almost lifeless. Its area without islands is 380 square meters. km, and the maximum depth is about 240 m.
Lakes Sarez and Yashilkul, formed as a result of earthquakes and mountain landslides, are surrounded by steep “wild shores and rich in fish. Sarez lake is very deep. Its depth exceeds 500 m. In the mountains of the Zeravshan ridge lies the tectonic ice-dammed Iskanderkul lake, which attracts many tourists with its picturesque .
On the foothill plains of the lake appeared in floodplains from old ladies, as well as in karst basins as a result of subsidence in loess or other easily eroded rocks. Karst lakes are usually small but deep.
Artificial ponds have been created in the republic. The Farhad, Kairakkum and Golovnoye reservoirs were built on the Syr Darya and Vakhsh. In the upper reaches of Vakhsh, the Nurek and other reservoirs arose. Artificial "seas" ensure the normal operation of turbines, promote irrigation and water supply, and the development of shipping.
Due to the abundance of mountain rivers and lakes, Tajikistan attracts tourists fans of extreme sports. There is relaxation for every taste: mountaineering, campfire holidays, horse crossings and much more all this makes this area especially attractive.