TAJIK AGRARIAN UNIVERSITY NAMED SHIRINSHO SHOTEMUR

Science

From the day of the foundation of the university to the present, along with the preparation of highly qualified specialists for all branches of the agro-industrial complex of the republic, the teaching staff has been paying close attention to research work. It should be noted that the university is not only one of the leading educational institutions in the republic, but also one of the leading scientific centers.

The first scientific achievements were introduced on the basis of research works of scientists of our university. In this regard, the history of the development of science at the university occupies one of the pages of the development of agricultural science and the formation of scientific and practical agriculture in our republic.

From the first days of the foundation of the university until the 40s, research at the university was conducted in various directions, including the development of agrotechnics for the cultivation of grain crops, cotton, alfalfa, grapes, and fruit and vegetable crops. In 1940, the research work consisted of 20 topics.

Since 1946, the results of the research work of university scientists at scientific teaching conferences were annually reported and discussed. In 1948, the scientific articles of scientists of our university were published in the first scientific collection of works entitled “Records of the TSHI”, in which 19 articles were placed. The scientists of the university with their scientific articles have made a worthy contribution to the scientific and practical journal “Agriculture of Tajikistan” (the year of its establishment 1948).

In the following years, along with the above tasks, additional research was carried out on the cultivation of geranium, cauliflower, on the mechanization of agriculture, on the introduction of crops.

In 1957 research work was conducted on 45 topics, in 1962 - on 66 topics, in the development of which 62 and 102, respectively, of university teachers were involved. During these years, teachers of public departments also joined the scientific work of the institute. Scientists of the zoo technical faculty worked towards solving problems of improving existing breeds of farm animals and replacing local low-productive breeds with highly productive breeds.

In the late 1950s and early 1960s, the practical orientation of research, their novelty, and close connection with production is evidenced by obtaining copyright certificates from 11 teachers of the institute. In the 60s-70s and the following years, scientists of the institute are characterized by concentrating forces and means on solving urgent agricultural problems in various sectors: agronomy, plant protection, zootechnics, veterinary medicine, finding ways to develop production and improving the quality of agricultural products, introductions, breeding; the use of mineral fertilizers, mechanization, irrigation reclamation, the application of new technologies and the achievements of scientific and technological progress, the economy and organization of agriculture, as well as to improve the quality of agricultural products.

In 1969, the first scientific division was created at the institute - the laboratory “Mineral nutrition of farm animals”, headed by Professor Gafarov A.K., where the number of scientific research and the number of teachers involved in this work increased every year. If in 1969 47 lecturers spoke as speakers, then in 1970 their number was 91. As a result, scientific activities and forces were aimed at solving urgent problems of scientific and technological progress, expanding problem research, strengthening the connection between science and production.

The institute was the initiator of scientific conferences, as well as their active participant, which contributed to the exchange of views on major issues of science, training of teaching staff, research effectiveness, growth of creative initiative, exchange of experience with advanced agricultural producers in different areas of the republic in the field of irrigation, land reclamation, economics and organization of agriculture.

In those years, according to the results of the research work, the following tasks were solved:

- a new breed of new Tajik breed of sheep has been bred, (Aliyev G.A.); Method for determining the content of trace elements in biological feeds and their impact on the productivity of agricultural animals (A. Gafarov);

- A new type of Tajik breed of yaks adapted to local conditions was introduced (N. Gorbunov); The technology of preparation of bio preparations against smallpox goats has been developed (Vannovsky T.Ya.);

- two new varieties of medium-fiber cotton have been created - TSHI-63 and TSHI-65 (Ya. D. Nagibin, E. Kh. Khaydarov.); A new winter wheat variety “Surkhak Jubilee” (Yermolenko A. P.) was created; Method and improvement of the way to determine the content of nitrogen and trace elements (Meshcheryakov A.M., Dzhumankulov Kh.K.);

- selection of intermediate crops of winter vegetation was carried out in the system of year-round use of irrigated land; developed agro technology cultivation of rice culture, water, soil and climatic regime (Nurmatov A.N., Kayumov G.Q., Gulmamedova N.N.); A new meat-breeding, woolen Tajik sheep breed has been developed (Aliev G.A.);

- improved methods of dealing with blood parasitic diseases (Absalomov I.S.); recommendations on the clinical examination of cattle were developed using fluorography and other methods (Mustakimov R.G.); effective measures were developed for the intra-breed improvement of the Gissar sheep, which enhanced their breeding and productive qualities (S. Farsykhanov); techniques have been developed to effectively combat fusarium and other diseases of cotton (Menlikiev M.Ya.);

- cast iron is resistant to wear (Lyadsky VB); new methods of restoring the working bodies of machines have been developed and introduced (Pulotov A.); a new method of restoring worn-out machine parts has been developed and introduced, by increasing their surface with various metals, by electrolysis (Pulatova A.); developed a prototype of a harvesting machine, an induction dryer and a universal seed drill (Shukurov A., Madaliev A., Popov A., Akhunov T. I.); a technology has been developed for obtaining two harvests per year on irrigated lands in different soil and climatic conditions of the republic (J.K. Kosimov);

- new methods of integrating the fight against diseases of cotton have been developed and introduced (S. Mukhiddinov); studied the characteristic physical features of liquid crystals (Boboev A.S., Saburov B.S.); new methods of irrigation of sloping lands and the design of the irrigation system have been developed (Nurmatov N.K.); research and their introduction into the production of household audit and labor interest (Mirokilov T.M., Soliev Kh.S.).

Independence of the state, market economy, various types of ownership and use of land, the introduction of new scientific discoveries and their use in agriculture, increased the responsibility of university scientists. In this regard, in order to properly organize scientific activities, changes were made to the structure of the scientific division of the university. At present, the scientific sector consists of: a department for science and innovations (R. Boimurodov), a master’s and a doctorate (PhD) (I. Mirzoyev), a specialist in the work of a master’s and a doctorate, in terms of professional development (Saidmurodova G.); Department for the organization of scientific work of students (G. Aminova); Center for publications and publications (M. Saidaliev); technology park; dissertation councils; laboratories; Patents Specialist (S. Abdulloeva), Accountant (M. Azamova). According to the decision of the academic council of the University, №1 from 09.26.2008. the duties of deputy vice-rectors for science and deputy deans of science, which are included in their academic load.

Currently, the scientific activity of the faculty of the university is aimed at the further development of agricultural science, new methods and techniques in scientific research in the field of plant breeding, the technology of growing plants and animals, protecting plants and animals from diseases and pests, improving agricultural technology in agricultural plants, applying new methods of irrigating land, feeding animals, creating new intensive gardens, introducing plants, using economic resources Owls in the management of agricultural production, both having significant results, thanks to the efforts of scientists of the University. They are making all their efforts to find ways for the effective development of agricultural production in accordance with the transition to a market economy, by saving energy and water resources in conditions of independence of the country, with various forms of ownership and use of land, which undoubtedly is the basis for improving the country's economy.

According to the plan of research works, approved on the basis of the calendar plan, the university conducts research works on 10 compulsory topics and 16 included in the academic load, research topics. Of these, there were: 2 topics at the agronomical faculty, 3 at the zoo technical faculty, 1 at the faculty of agricultural mechanization, 2 at the faculty of horticulture and agricultural biotechnology, 2 at the research institute Biotechnology.

According to the reports of the university research managers, a lot of research is being done and the following results are worthy of note:

- studies have shown that 4 short-term crop rotation of cotton and grain crops gives an opportunity to receive from a hectare 28.4-30.5 centers of raw cotton, 76 centers per hectare of corn and 21.2 centers per hectare of mug bean. Sowing of winter grain crops yields 50.2 centers per hectare of grain and 27.4 centers per hectare of raw cotton (Sardorov M.N.);

- the study of pasture productivity in the Republic of Tajikistan showed that the sowing of saxaul and isen allowed to collect 6-8 centers per hectare and 4 centers per hectare of seeds of these crops (Kodirov K.G.);

- scientific research in the field of cultivation technology and protection of cotton, watermelons and melons from pests, showed that an increase in the spread of whitefly in the second half of the growing season, in the lower part of the back of the leaves, has a negative effect on cotton yield. The use of drugs Karate, 5% d.v., Nurell-D, 55% d.v., Detsis, 2.5% d.v., Sipar-T, 20% a. showed high efficiency in the fight against whitefly.

 The results of the research work on the topic: “The development of measures to integrate the protection of tomatoes from pests and diseases in the Gissar Valley showed that modern pests and plants attracting beneficial insects were used to control tomato pests (tomato moth, cotton moth, aphid). The effectiveness of biological preparations Nurell D, Konfidor and Omite in the fight against cotton pest was 100-79.2%, the preparation BI-58 New - 74.2-40.1% (Kakharov K).

- during 2017 in the breeding farms of them. L.Murodova and A.Yusufova 54% of cows were fertilized (T. Ruziev);

- the results of research work on the “Use of DNA in breeding work” showed that genetic maps were created based on the results of studying the DNA of cattle. More than 300 micro-Salad markers have now been identified, 30 of which are used for cattle. For the study of the allele fund of 150 species of Shvitzesebuvidny cattle, 20 black-sprouted and 30 local species, research is being conducted at the All-Russian Institute of Animal Husbandry of the Russian Federation. Together with Russian scientists, with the aim of further fertilization of small livestock (sheep), the semen of the mountain Pamir argali was sent and studied, later from the experiments on the Gissar breed of sheep, 18 heads of hybrids were obtained. Research in this area continues (Amirshoev F.);

- analysis of practical work showed that the use of bentonites in the feed of quails in the amount of 0.5-1.5% contributes to their rapid growth and development (Komilzoda D.);

- while justifying the optimal operating modes of the combined machines attached to the tractor of class 1.4, up to 50% of fuel is saved, which is reflected in the total cost of production (Akhmadov B.R.);

- when carrying out practical work in vitro under artificial conditions in order to increase seedlings of coniferous trees, Dendron sequoia, eastern biota, Arizona spruce, virgin juniper and fruit seedlings (almonds) using the developed method of grafting seedlings, the formation of callus and biogenesis (Nimadjanova K.);

- Studies on the identification of natural resources of medicinal plants in the valley of the Gažna showed that it occupies 8.7 hectares per area of distribution of dandelion; thermopsis - 1.42; Gorchanka - 1.8 ha, onion anzur - 1.5 ha; shepherd's bag 0.58 ha. The biological resource of medicinal plants is: dandelion –1846.9 kg, thermopsis — 1,885.6 kg, mound — 103.5 kg, onion azure — 752.1 kg of shepherd's bag — 353.0 kg (Sattorov J.);

- as a result of studies of the yield of new species through cellular engineering (cultivation of myrrhaceous tissue in various nutrient media using potato samples from the CIP collection (Potato Cultivation Center)), promising varieties and lines were identified: TS 24/9, TS 30/4 - 2 , TS 30/8, TS 35/1, TS 41/8, TS 49/5-2, TS 52/1, TS 52/1 - clone, TS 59/3, “Amirsho TS” (30/10), “Gonchi TS” (30/11), (Salimzoda A.F., Anvarova M.);

- pilot studies on the yield of the “Amirsho –TS” potato lines (30/10), Hounds- TS (30/11) in 2018 were carried out in the university's educational facilities;

- According to the results of the studies, the required number and morphological characteristics of the Gonchi potato samples were determined, which in 2018 will be submitted to the State Commission for Testing Crop Varieties and Protecting Varieties. The species “Amirsho” will also be presented to the State Commission for Testing Crop Varieties and Protecting Varieties in 2018 (Salimzoda A.F., Anvarova M.).

During the 2014-2018 years Scientists of the university, according to the results of scientific research, have developed new varieties of cotton “Gisar”, “Zarafshon”, “Khulbuk”; wheat varieties “3000-Solagii Hisor”, “Moi Nav”; Potato varieties “Karimi”, “Gonchi” and recommended to the regions by the variety-testing State Commission and the evaluation of varieties by the Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Tajikistan.

Soft wheat varieties “Sipar”, “Mehrgon”, “Lochin”, triticale “Yusufi”, bred under the guidance of scientists Rasulova S., Khaidarova Z., Salimzoda A.F., Anvarova M., Makhmadyorzoda U.M., in 2016 year were presented to the State Commission for testing and evaluation of varieties of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Tajikistan.

Along with scientific activities, the faculty of the university takes an active part in programs for the development of various industries (horticulture and viticulture, sericulture, seed production, beekeeping) adopted by the decision of the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan University scientists actively participate and contribute to all scientific and practical activities which is conducted by the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan, the Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Tajikistan, the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Tajikistan, the Ministry of Economy and Trade, the Academy of Science, TAAS and other government agencies.

Of particular importance in the scientific activities of the university is given to the training of scientific and pedagogical personnel in the field of agriculture. Over the past 5 years, 33 master's theses and 6 doctoral dissertations have been defended according to the research methodology of the university (Khotamov T.M., Bobokhonov R., Sultonova M., Nazarova N., Sakhimov M.R., Akhmadov B.R.).

The university has all the necessary material and technical conditions for the training of scientific and pedagogical personnel. In this aspect, the leadership of the university is ready to provide full support to teachers engaged in the preparation of scientific works, theses.

In scientific activities TAU them. Sh. Shotemur, along with research, a large place is given to the training of scientific and pedagogical personnel. Currently, there are 48 doctors of science, of whom 6 are academics of TAAS, 5 corresponding members of TAAS, 121 candidates of science and associate professors, 75 graduate students and applicants (5 full-time graduate students, 5 - correspondence courses, 30 - applicants, 35 - Doctors PhD, 180 - masters). All of them conduct scientific work and are accountable to the department of science.

This year, at the university there are councils for the defense of doctoral and master’s theses: in the specialty 060101 - crop production, general agriculture; 060107 - plant protection; 060210 - livestock; 060208 - animal products, feed and feed technology. Also, 3 university professors defended doctoral dissertations in the Russian Federation and the Republic of Kyrgyzstan 1 doctoral thesis.

It is gratifying that this year the university opened dissertation councils under the President of the Republic of Tajikistan on awarding PhD 6D KOA-014, Ph.D. soil science, 6D 080900 - horticulture, 6D 081100 - protection and quarantine of plants, in which 8 teachers defended their dissertations.

During 2014-2018, more than 2,000 faculty members from the university actively participated in various scientific events with their scientific achievements. The results of research works are reported at the scientific and practical conferences of the faculty of the university, as well as at national conferences devoted to various significant dates, whereby the obtained achievements are made available to the entire public of the country.

In 2018, the «Kishovarz» magazine (the Farmer) was included in the list of publications reviewed by the Higher Attestation Commission under the President of the Republic of Tajikistan, which was a long-standing wish of the teaching staff. In this case, a great merit belongs to the rector of the Tau, professor Salimzoda A.F., professor Norov M.S., the editor of the magazine Saidaliev M.

The introduction of students to research work and their participation in scientific university, republican, international events is an indicator of the full and fruitful activities of the university. During these years, more than 10 million students of the university participated in the scientific and practical student conferences and gave presentations.

During these years 130 textbooks, 235 textbooks, 50 monographs, 1940 scientific articles on the results of scientific research were prepared and published.

It should be noted the significant contribution of scientists of our university to the process of inventions, they obtained copyright certificates and patents from the National Center for Patents and Inventions of the Ministry of Economy and Trade of the Republic. During these years, university researchers have received 72 patents of copyright certificates in the field of scientific achievements.

For the fruitful scientific achievements and their introduction into production - 7 young scientists of the university were awarded the Ismoili Somoni Prize (Baeva N., Khasanov N.R., Olimov A.Kh., Sattorov N.R., Akhmadov B., Davlatmurodov T., Komilzoda A.). Professor S. Mukhitdinov was awarded by the Academician Prize for Scientific Achievement Pavlovsky Ye.N.

Every year, according to the program of the Ministry of Education and Science of Tajikistan, students of our university participate in the Republican Olympiad in 12 subjects, among other universities occupy worthy places.

At 49 departments of the university there are scientific circles of students in which more than 600 students are involved in research work. The leadership of the circles is entrusted to the heads of departments, experienced doctors of science and professors, associate professors.

Currently, the university has 67 research and training laboratories and 15 research laboratories equipped with modern electronic and computer equipment, as well as the Research Institute of Biotechnology, 2 educational and industrial enterprises. Of these, 10 laboratories have been opened in the last 2015-2018, thanks to the great efforts and support of the Rector of TAU, Professor Salimzoda A.F. Only in the last 2-3 years, with the help of investments from foreign partners, the following research laboratories have been opened: “Improving Pasture Management”, “Sustainable Pasture Management”, “Agro chemistry and Soil Science”, “Quality and Safety of Food Products”, “Meat Quality Analysis” and meat products ”,“ Chemistry ”,“ Physics ”, laboratory“ Animal Feed ”.

According to the results of research works of scientists of the Faculty of Agricultural Mechanization in the direction of energy-saving resources, a patent was received from the National Information Patent Center for the invention “Cultivator-fertilizer of KUB-3.5 melon crops for processing between rows, applying mineral fertilizers and destroying weeds of the garden beds” and “ The method of surface treatment and the introduction of nutrient cultivated crops”.

Research is also being conducted in relation to the design and exploration of alternative ways of generating electricity. A number of theoretical studies have been carried out. As a result, combined installations have been invented that give energy through wind, heat and light, where electromagnetic radioactive waves are converted into electricity.

Over the years, the scientific department was headed by professors - Meshcheryakov AM, Forsikhonov S.I., Eshonov I.E., Litvinov V.N., Masaidov R.S., Mirzoyev D.M., Piriyev J.S., Salimov T.O., Sardorov M.N. Currently, this post is occupied by Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor Norov M.S.